REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE of Pantal River
70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water which is an indispensable natural source for the existence of living organisms. Physicochemical characteristics of a river water such as water temperature, pH, alkalinity, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, it plays a major role in affecting the life of aquatic living beings. Each of this physicochemical parameters play a specific role in affecting the quality of the surface water. Thus surface water monitoring periodically is also important in order to have a healthy aquatic environment that support the life of aquatic organisms (Ahmed,F. et.al., 2015).
Water is obtained from a surface water bodies such as river, lake, estuary, ponds, steams, and marshes etc., Water are not consumed directly because of the varying water quality from place to place depending on various physicochemical parameters. Even though the water may be clear, it may not be fit to be used for domestic and agricultural purposes due to varying water quality. Thus it is necessary to check the quality of the water (Beat Staufferet.al. 2009).
Rivers are natural habitats for aquatic livings. They also serve as source for the drinking water supply (Nongmaithem and Basudha, 2017). In the Province of Pangasinan, Dagupan City is low-lying area where Pantal and Calmay Riversflow.During high tides, these rivers tend to rise and cause troubles to the residents of Dagupan. (Leonardo Micua, 2017)
Figure 2: The Pantal River
Pantal River is one of the seven rivers that surrounds the City. It considered as a vein of the beautiful Dagupan with its rich mangrove reserves. Though the river is not fit for direct drinking since it is a site of aquaculture.Pantal River is used as one of the main river for navigation. Recently launched river cruise is new attraction in Pantal and it supports fishermen (New Lifestyle, 2015).
Furthermore, According to (PENRO) Provincial Environment and Natural Research Officer, Philippines Pantal river belong to Class C which means that it could be used as drinking water after proper disinfection (ICMR, Indian Council of Medical Research) and It is safe for the propagation of fish, recreation, agriculture, irrigation and manufacturing processes (DENR, Department of Environment and Natural Resources).
Every water body have varying physical and chemical characteristics that affect the quality of the water. The method of investigating the physical and chemical characteristics of the water is called as Physicochemical Analysis.The chemical quality of the aquatic environment varies according to local geology, the climate, the distance from the ocean and the amount of soil cover. Temperature, pH, color, odor and taste are among the physical characteristics of the river water.(ShwetaTyagiet.al.2018;Venkatesharaju et al 2010).
The physicochemical characteristics of the river affects the biological characteristics of the river. For example, Chlorine presence minimizes the presence of coliform organisms and viruses. This means that the physicochemical characteristics of the river water regulates the aquatic life. Biological qualities of water are of greater importance to the river. Unless the physicochemical characteristics suit the biological life, the aquatic ecosystem would not exist. (Indian Standard ICMR)
Physicochemical parameters of the water affect the quality or nature of the water. Aquatic fishes, insects, microorganisms etc. adapt to the water quality. Water may have natural nutrients, dissolved oxygen etc. naturally. But elements like Arsenic, fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides etc. affect the water quality. Particulate matter also affect the water quality. Particulate matter can be organic or inorganic.The time variability of dissolved and particulate matter content in water bodies’ results mainly from the interaction of the water bodies with the environment, mineral solubility, characteristics of particulate matter and the nature and intensity of organisms.
The environmental characteristics support the life of flora and fauna in the aquatic ecosystem. These plants and animals also play an important role in affecting the quality of the river water. The qualitative analysis gives a clear picture on the quality of the water. (ShwetaTyagiet.al.2018;Venkatesharaju et al 2010). The water quality is measured with the help of WQI (Water Quality Index). WHO (World Health Organization), ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research), BFAR (Bureau of Fisheries and Agriculture) are the organization which has the standard permissible limits of Physicochemical Characteristics. (A.Rajendiren, 2015)
The term Water Quality is always confused with the term water pollution. But they are completely different from each other. The term water quality is defined as a set of concentrations, speciation, and physical partitions of inorganic or organic substances including aquatic biota. Pollution is the adverse change in water quality affecting the natural quality of the water. Polluted water affects the health and life of humans and animals depending on the specific affected water body. Polluted water bodies affect the agriculture, small and large scale industries and economy also. (NabakishorNongmaithem, 2017)
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